Almost all religions teach some form of meditation. However, not all are acceptable to God, pleasing to God, inspired by God, or effective in deepening a person’s relationship with God. If meditation techniques are mechanical, mindless, monotonous, monotone, mundane, magical, manipulative, or even overly mystical, they are probably not the proper approach. True biblical meditation is relational: it is the simple overflow of sincere, loving communion between the everlasting Father and His sons and daughters. It is a heart-to-heart connection with the Creator, fostering inspiration from Him and contentment in Him.
If meditation methods are mysterious, they are probably spurious—vain and misguided attempts at penetrating the realm of the unknown. Quite often, they are based on a false interpretation of the nature of Ultimate Reality—the idea that the Absolute is just a cosmic level of consciousness, an impersonal life force, requiring some esoteric formula, incantation, or ritual to access.
In 1970, as a devotee of Kundalini Yoga, I spent fourteen hours a day in solitude—much of that time involved in meditation. I was desperate to know truth and to be one with the Eternal Truth-giver (or what I conceived God to be at that time). I realized that alone would give me peace. Many of the millions of people worldwide who are involved in meditation are of the same mindset; they are genuinely and passionately seeking for truth, for higher consciousness, for a more fulfilling existence, for greater values to live by, and for union with the Divine. I respect that—and it makes me even more desirous of sharing the precious truths I have discovered with them.
When I see Buddhist monks of the Far East in their lifelong pursuit of Nirvana, or the wandering sadhus of India driven to extremes of self-denial in seeking Samadhi (the absolute bliss of enlightenment), my heart is gripped with compassion. How I long to introduce them to the One who came to earth for all of us, to “guide our feet into the way of peace” (Luke 1:79). He is the Prince of peace and in Him alone can true peace be found. No matter how genuine and passionate seekers may be, Jesus’ admonition still echoes with superior authority around the globe:
“I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through Me.” (John 14:6)
In this article, we will first investigate meditation methods found outside of true Christianity. Then, at the end of the article, we will focus on the biblical view. However, all through the article, we will be examining contrasts between the two.
Bodily Position in Meditation
Many meditation practitioners believe that the position of the body is essential for optimum results. For instance, in Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, and many New Age and yoga groups, the “lotus position” (padmasana) is touted as the preferred form for the meditator (back erect, legs crossed, with the feet pulled up on thighs, and with palms tilted upward, resting on the knees). Why is this called “the lotus position”? Because the lotus flower, growing in shallow streams and ponds, is rooted in the mud, but the blossom floats on the surface of the water. Thus, it is revered as the perfect symbol of an enlightened person who overcomes the lower nature.
The Practice of Mudras
In order for the “energy” to flow through the body of the meditator in an unbroken circuit, certain hand positions called “mudras” are also used. Supposedly, this practice maximizes the meditation experience. Here are two examples:
The Gyan Mudra is one of the most well-known hand positions designed for meditation. To many Hindus, yoga advocates, and New Agers, the thumb represents Brahman (ultimate reality, an impersonal life-force) and the forefinger represents atman (the individual soul). Curling the forefinger around to touch the thumb is a mystically powerful position: an invocation for Brahman to fully manifest within atman, thus lifting the meditator into higher levels of consciousness.
The Cosmic Hand Mudra is commonly used in zazen, a form of seated meditation practiced by Zen Buddhists. To form this mudra, the dominant hand should cradle the other hand, with both palms facing upward. Tips of the thumbs should be touching each other, forming a compressed oval shape or circle together with the palms. This symbolizes the completeness yet emptiness of the entire universe (sunyata: empty of any lasting value or substance), which is a central theme in Zen Buddhist teachings. In other Buddhist schools, the circle represents fire that burns away impurities. Using this mudra in seated zazen meditation is supposed to help a person shift his/her attention inward, promoting self-awareness and helping to maintain concentration during meditation.
Are these bodily positions necessary?
Does God give directives like this in the Bible? Absolutely not. The first mention of meditation in the Bible describes something of much greater simplicity:
And Isaac went out to meditate in the field in the evening; and he lifted his eyes and looked, and there, the camels were coming. (Genesis 24:63)
No secret, arcane method was being used; no peculiar body position was being implemented. Isaac was just walking through a field. Most likely he was worshipfully pondering the mysteries of God, of the universe, and of life itself, as he walked prayerfully connected with the Creator toward the close of the day. This idea is related to the biblical descriptions of two patriarchs in the Bible: how “Enoch walked with God” and “Noah walked with God” (Genesis 5:24; 6:9). That phrase implies welcoming God into all of life’s endeavors, enjoying fellowship with Him constantly–not just when we are focused on prayer alone.
The Bible does encourage lifting of hands in worship, bowing, standing, kneeling and even falling prostrate before God, but it does not require these or any other positions to be assumed to successfully enter the presence of the Most High. Quite the opposite, the emphasis is never on the implementation of a physical position but the inclination of the heart. (See Isaiah 55:3, Psalms 119:112.)
Biblical accounts of visitations from God often describe the recipients in physical positions not normally associated with prayer. Abraham was just sitting at the door of his tent when God visited him (Genesis 18). Moses was just walking by a bush that caught on fire when the Lord spoke to him audibly and revealed his destiny (Exodus 3). The children of Israel were standing at the base of Mount Sinai when it was consumed with holy fire and the voice of God rolled like thunder across the desert dunes (Exodus 20). Paul was on the road, traveling to Damascus (probably on horseback) to arrest Christians when he was thrust into a vision of Jesus and fell to the ground (Acts 9). The disciples were just seated in the upper room when the Holy Spirit came in like the sound of a rushing mighty wind and flames of fire appeared over their heads (Acts 2).
These individuals were not carefully positioning their bodies for the optimum manifestation of a mystical experience of self-awareness and the awakening of “God-consciousness.” Often, they were just going through the normal routine of life, in physical positions not normally associated with spirituality. The psalmist David even included reclining, “When I remember You on my bed, I meditate on You in the night watches” (Psalms 63:6).
So, the conclusion is easy to reach—You don’t have to contort your body and hold it in some painful yogic postures to connect with the Divine. You wouldn’t do that to more effectively talk with your parents, your spouse, your children, or your co-workers. So, why would you have to twist your body into odd positions to talk with your heavenly Father. Your words and your heart are what touches Him, not the position of your physical frame. Of course, He’s not just an ‘energy-force’ to be tapped into and manipulated; He is the everlasting Creator who loves you deeply and wants to be loved in return—not treated like a computer into which you insert the right combination of ones and zeros.
May I emphasize it again: true meditation is not mechanical; it is relational.
Eight Kinds of Meditation
Found in Eastern Religions and New Age Spirituality
- Breath meditation
- Yantra meditation
- Chakra meditation
- Mantra meditation
- Sound meditation
- Movement meditation
- Visualization meditation
- Silent meditation
Breath meditation is called “entry level meditation,” because of its functional simplicity. The renowned Buddhist monk, Thich Nhat Hanh insists, ““Breath is the bridge which connects life to consciousness, which unites your body to your thoughts. Whenever your mind becomes scattered, use your breath as the means to take hold of your mind again.” His opinion runs parallel to the idea that the air is permeated with a life force (called prana in Hinduism and chi in Taoism) and that controlled breathing can awaken and intensify awareness. However, in the biblical approach, the goal is not to be consciously aware of patterns of breath but to enjoy a vital, real and joyous relationship with God.
Sitting motionless and concentrated on inhaling and exhaling breath while stilling the mind would unquestionably bring a semblance of peace and a reduction of anxiety, but it cannot grant a true, spiritual awakening. In Kundalini Yoga, we used to do something called the “breath of fire”—a very rapid series of inhales and exhales, then holding the breath after a predetermined number of times. This hyperventilation certainly over-oxygenated our brains, giving the sensation of an intense, mental rush—a kind of ‘soaring’ buzz that felt spiritual—but it was a futile attempt at achieving that elusive state some call “Self-realization.”
Some Christians who straddle the fence between the biblical and New Age views point to the fact that God breathed into Adam and he became “a living soul” (Genesis 2:7). So, they assume, the breath is divine in essence. Therefore, when we inhale, in a sense, we are breathing in Spirit. That is not a correct exegesis of the Scripture, because it does not bring in all related verses.
The following two points need to be emphasized: (1) When Adam was created, he became a “living soul,” but after he sinned, he lost the presence of God and became a dead soul—“dead in trespasses and sins” (Genesis 2:7, Ephesians 2:1). However, Jesus made a way for man’s original state to be restored. When He arose from the dead, He appeared in the upper room to the disciples, saying:
“Peace to you! As the Father has sent Me, I also send you.” And when He had said this, He breathed on them, and said to them, “Receive the Holy Spirit.” (John 20:21-22)
When they were filled with the Holy Spirit, they were once again infused with the divine nature, just as Adam was in his original state. They were already breathing oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen, and all the other gaseous vapors that fill the atmosphere—but after Jesus breathed into them, they were filled with God’s Spirit. So, natural breath and the breath of God are two totally different things.
Some popular Christian songs (that I love to sing) get this concept totally skewed. Just check out the following examples:
Before I took a breath, You breathed Your life in me. You have been so so kind to me.
So Will I
And as You speak, a hundred billion creatures catch Your breath.
This Is the Air I Breath
This is the air I breath; Your holy presence living in me.
Great Are You Lord
It’s Your breath in our lungs, so we pour out our praise, we pour out our praise.
All four of these popular worship songs get it wrong, because they imply that natural and supernatural breath are one and the same—when they are altogether different. God did not breathe his life into us prior to birth (as indicated in “Reckless Love”), nor is the breath in all animals and creatures divine breath (the “So Will I” claim). The air we breath is not his “holy presence”; it is just AIR. And God’s breath is not “in our lungs”; it enlivens our spirits when we are filled with the Holy Spirit. To make my view easy to remember, I often give yoga advocates an appropriate acrostic:
Y = you
O = only
G = get
A = air
Yantra meditation consists of staring at a geometric design as an aid to meditation. Various shapes have different symbolic meanings. Different colors represent different desirable inner states. Traditional yantras have a bindu or central point, which symbolizes the main deity associated with the yantra and/or the point from which all the universe emanates. Often yantras and mantras are mixed, with the yantra design incorporating the spelling of a mantra. Can you imagine Jesus using one of these when He prayed to the Father? No, I don’t think so.
Chakra meditation consists of meditating on seven swirling energy centers in the body that my former guru taught are merely imaginary (though many of a far eastern or new age mindset believe they are real—though their existence cannot be proven). Here are the proposed centers with their associated qualities (starting near the base of the spine):
- Root chakra / Survival, instinct, stability
- Sacral chakra / Sexuality, creativity
- Solar Plexus chakra / Personality, power, wisdom
- Heart chakra / Love, compassion, healing
- Throat Chakra / Communication, inspiration
- Third eye chakra / Perception, intuition, will-power
- Crown chakra / Consciousness, spirituality
Each chakra is also associated with a different Hindu deity (like Shiva, Vishnu or Ganesha). Meditating on the chakras supposedly aligns them (it is taught that they can be blocked, out of balance, or even spinning backwards, which can cause a person to be disrupted emotionally, mentally, and spiritually. The flow of energy through the chakras is called “Shakti” in some Hindu groups (Shakti is a goddess in the Hindu worldview. In the form of Durga, she is the supposed consort or soul-mate of Shiva, the god of destruction and lord of yoga.) When the kundalini (serpent power) is awakened and flows up through the chakras, adherents claim that the chakras are fully activated and the meditator can become totally self-realized—even leaving the body at times through certain chakras to experience astral projection and/or absolute oneness with the Oversoul.
What is my response to all this information? Walking with the Lord daily and experiencing the reality of His presence through worship and praise can bring an impartation of the desirable qualities in the list above like love, creativity, stability and inspiration and so much more. Loving Jesus and being loved by him is far simpler, far more beautiful, and far more profound than this mechanical, magical, manipulative and overly mystical process of meditating on the chakras. Besides, the idea of chakras is non-biblical. The most negative outcome of meditation on the chakras is this: it offers demonic beings an opportunity to falsify spiritual experiences and to counterfeit the true experience of God. The supposed “awakening of the kundalini” is actually demon possession and the results can be very dark (for more information read this article, What Really Is the Kundalini?).
Mantra meditation is the repetition of a word or series of words in a monotone way that is supposed to help the meditator transcend thought and the natural world. Jesus undisputedly taught his disciples against this practice in Matthew 6:7:
“When you pray, do not use vain repetitions as the heathen do. For they think that they will be heard for their many words.”
Once again, this is a mechanical, monotonous, manipulative, and overly mystical approach. We would never attempt to communicate with a fellow human being by repeating the same phrase in a monotone, droning way—over and over again, for hours and hours. They would be appalled and repelled. Neither does it work with the Almighty God. It may lull the mind into a dull state that feels less anxious, but it never has and never will connect the soul to the Creator.
When I was a yoga teacher, the primary mantra we used was “Ek Ong Kar Sat Nam Siri Wahe Guru.” I was told it meant, “There is one God, Truth is His Name, and the Great Spirit is our Teacher.” Within a biblical context, this statement is actually true, but within a Far Eastern worldview, the interpretation is much different and is not true. For instance, the statement “There is one God” biblically means there is one God to the exclusion of all others. (Only in the Bible do we find the revelation of God as a triune being: Father, Son and Holy Spirit—yet these three are one God. And there is no other God but him.)
On the contrary, from a Far Eastern perspective, the statement, “There is only one God” is all-inclusive (meaning all interpretations of the nature and names of God are accepted and celebrated). However, even though the words of the mantra I was taught may be true when biblically interpreted, there is absolutely no value in uttering them hundreds of times to supposedly burn up karma or advance a person spiritually.
The Hare Krishna mantra (called the maha mantra) is a repetitious song of the name of that Hindu god that is supposed to be uttered 108 times, sixteen times a day. That’s a total of 1,728 times, every single day. This demand utterly consumes the devotee. Supposedly, it takes chanting the maha mantra millions of times to attain moksha (deliverance from the cycle of rebirths).
Krishna devotees often use a rosary-like set of beads (called a “mala”) to help them count 108 repetitions. It is absurd to believe that God would require such a thing. He is personal and only interested in loving personal communion with His people. Genuine, spontaneous praise, thanksgiving and adoration are the attitudes of heart that He rejoices to receive—not the mindless mechanics of a mantra. A flow of sincere prayerful conversation is what touches his heart and draws the believer into greater intimacy with him.
Some Christians practice something called “The Jesus Prayer”—which is repetition of the statement, “Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, have mercy on me, a sinner”—uttered hundreds of times daily. Once again, this is a futile way to coerce the Savior of the world into responding. Saying it one time with deep sincerity is enough. You may ask for mercy again, but it is not necessary to repeat the exact same phrase over and over in the same way. It is merely Hindu mantra yoga dressed up in the clothing of Christian mysticism.
What would Jesus do? How would He pray? He certainly wouldn’t use a method like mantra meditation. Read the Gospel of John, chapter 17. That intercessory prayer of the Lord Jesus over the church to come was a flow of intelligible thought, not monotonous phrases droningly repeated over and over to magically bring change.
For more information on “Mantras” see this article on thetruelight.net.
Around 1500 years ago, Bodhi Dharma, a Hindu priest, went to China and developed Chan Buddhism (the practice that later became known in Japan as Zen Buddhism). He arrived at the Shaolin Temple in Hunan province of China where he taught the meditating monks something he called the eighteen hands of Buddha (or 18 lohan—which means Buddha postures). He did this because he felt meditation should also be in motion. He believed that seated meditation was often counterproductive because of how tired the meditators became. Bodhi Dharma’s teaching developed into what we now call martial arts. In the Taoist worldview, Tai Chi, which is a slow meditative movement, is a similar approach. It is all about channeling chi through the body through movement to attain higher levels of consciousness.
The whirling dance of the Sufis (the mystical branch of the Muslim faith) is an extreme form of movement meditation. Sufis celebrate the acceptance of various spiritual paths and pursue above all things a mystical union with the Divine. Sufi love poems are famous—the worshiper being the “lover” and God being the “Beloved.” Their dance is a continuous passionate whirling before God with hands reaching upward. Their goal is ecstatic union with the One their faith calls Allah.
“Visualization meditation is the method of picturing positive images, ideas, symbols, or using affirmations and mantras to help calm the mind while the body is in a relaxed state.” Practitioners can do “visualization meditation to help ease pain, send love to people near and far,” or to bring forth a manifestation of goals . . . “Athletes also often use visualization as a performance-enhancing technique. And energy healers often use this in their practice to send distal energy.” The meditator puts out positive thoughts in the form of visual images to compel the universe to grant those thoughts by making them a reality—a process that has been termed the “law of attraction.” This is not how prayer works biblically. It is not manipulative and magical, controlling the Creator to do our will, like rubbing a bottle containing a genie. On the opposite extreme, it involves appealing to God as the Sovereign Lord of all, not exerting domination over some “universal force.”
Sound meditation is something with which I am personally familiar. Yogi Bhajan used to conduct sessions where he would strike a large gong with a mallet over and over, louder and louder, as we lay flat on our backs, meditating on “universal consciousness.” The resounding gong had a hypnotic kind of effect, making all of us meditators feel like we were drifting into outer space. Now I realize—you cannot “gong” your way into a relationship with God. It takes heartfelt repentance over sin, faith in His promises, and genuine love toward Him.
Taylor Houchens whose testimony is on the true light website was a shaman before his salvation through the Lord Jesus. He explained that he also practiced “sound meditation” in Shamanism, beating on a personal drum for long periods of time to put himself into a trance-like state.
Silent meditation is the last category we will visit in this article. Buddhist monks will often sit for hours in silence, sometimes staring at a candle or a dot on a wall, to empty the mind of thought. It falls under the category of “Mindfulness,” but it is really “Mindlessness.” Being silent certainly has value at times, but God never said in his Word that to find communion with Him we “enter the silence.” One of the main proponents of this approach in the western world was a Catholic monk named Thomas Merton who once said:
“I see no contradiction between Buddhism and Christianity . . . I intend to become as good a Buddhist as I can.”
In truth, there are MANY contradictions between Buddhism and Christianity. For instance, Buddha declared that humans do not have a soul while Jesus emphasized that we do. Buddhism also denies the existence of a Creator God while Christianity celebrates it.
Apparently, Thomas Merton was never born again or truly filled with the Holy Spirit. If he had been, he could not have made the claims he did. He wrote the book, Entering the Silence in which he encouraged silent meditation and another book titled Contemplative Prayer which teaches that practice in depth.
Quite the contrary, we are told in Psalm 100 to enter God’s gates with thanksgiving: an outward, audible show of grateful praise. That doesn’t mean it is wrong to pause and ponder the meaning, or the beauty, or the grandeur of who God is or what God has done—but it is absolutely wrong to equate God with “the Great Silence.” He ‘inhabits the praise’ of His people (Psalms 22:3).
I often hear people justify contemplative silent meditation by quoting the Lord’s exhortation in Psalm 46:10 to “Be still and know that I am God” – but when read in context, that verse has nothing to do with prayer or meditation. It is God’s suggesting how we should respond to the description He gives of the end of the age and the final desolation that will ultimately devour this planet. Read it in context now:
Come, behold the works of the LORD, who has made desolations in the earth. He makes wars cease to the end of the earth; He breaks the bow and cuts the spear in two; He burns the chariot in the fire. Be still, and know that I am God; I will be exalted among the nations, I will be exalted in the earth! The LORD of hosts is with us; the God of Jacob is our refuge. Selah (Psalms 46:8-11)
In other words, God is encouraging us to calmly ponder His greatness and omnipotence in finally subjecting this evil world to his dominion and kingdom influence—rather than being stressed about all the evil that surround us on our way toward that grand and final event.
TRUE BIBLICAL MEDITATION
Two biblical prayers concerning meditation reveal some important truths about the nature of the practice and how it should be received by God.
Let the words of my mouth and the meditation of my heart be acceptable in Your sight, O LORD, my strength and my Redeemer.
I will sing to the LORD as long as I live; I will sing praise to my God while I have my being. May my meditation be sweet to Him; I will be glad in the LORD.
The Complete Jewish Bible translates this phrase:
May my musings be pleasing to Him.
Acceptable, sweet, and pleasing—none of those words would be used if a mantra was chanted. Would it be sweet to you if your husband or wife chanted “I love you” in a mechanical, monotone way for an hour in your presence? Or would you probably exit the room after a couple of minutes and call the local psychiatric hospital. If it would be unacceptable, distasteful, or displeasing to you, the same must be true with God. Meditation is only acceptable, sweet and pleasing to Him when it is a sincere, genuine and heartfelt: filled with loving expressions of devotion and spontaneous, worshipful communications while pondering the mysteries of God. What David didn’t say is just as important as what he did say. He did not say that his meditation would be acceptable if he “entered the silence,” or repeated the same phrase hundreds of times, or sat motionless for hours in a cross-legged position.
Meditation is biblical, but it must also be acceptable. Authentic Christian meditation differs greatly from the eight primary meditation practices found in non-Christian worldviews that we just examined. While non-Christian meditation often involves an attempt to empty the mind to attain higher mystical states of awareness, biblical meditation involves engaging the mind in pondering the meaning of God’s Word.
Meditating on God’s Word
God himself explains this key revelation to Joshua when He supernaturally appeared to that leader of Israel, saying:
“This Book of the Law shall not depart from your mouth, but you shall meditate in it day and night . . .”
Many other Bible passages exhort us to meditate on the Word of God:
Oh, how I love Your law! It is my meditation all the day.
My hands also I will lift up to Your commandments, which I love, and I will meditate on Your statutes.
My eyes are awake through the night watches, that I may meditate on Your word.
I have more understanding than all my teachers, for Your testimonies are my meditation.
Blessed is the man who walks not in the counsel of the ungodly,
Nor stands in the path of sinners, nor sits in the seat of the scornful;
But his delight is in the law of the LORD, and in His law he meditates day and night.
He shall be like a tree planted by the rivers of water,
That brings forth its fruit in its season, whose leaf also shall not wither;
And whatever he does shall prosper.
So meditating on God’s Word often as we pass through each day keeps us ‘rooted’ (established) in a place of blessedness; (the word “blessed” means supremely happy, enriched with benefits, spiritually prosperous, and highly favored of God). This psalm passage reveals to us symbolically that prayerfully pondering the Word of God keeps us close to the river of His presence flowing past our lives and out of our innermost being (see John 7:37-38). As a result, eternal fruit is produced through our hearts and lives. Our efforts toward God’s kingdom—guided by His Word and inspired by His Spirit—prosper both for time and eternity (they are successful in accomplishing God’s purposes). Thus, our fruit does not whither. All of this comes through proper and pleasing meditation.
Meditating on God’s Works and His Nature
We are also encouraged to meditate on God’s works and His nature:
Make me understand the way of Your precepts; so shall I meditate on Your wonderful works.
I will meditate on the glorious splendor of Your majesty, and on Your wondrous works.
I love to walk outside late at night under a starlit sky and meditate on the greatness of the Creator by looking up at the overwhelming largeness of His cosmos. It always erupts into praise and deep appreciation of His incredible genius.
I also love to prayerfully and gratefully dwell on the miraculous things God has done in my life. Meditating on his “wondrous works” (like the salvation, or the way He miraculously healed both my son and my daughter) makes gratitude flow like a fountain of indescribable joy from the depth of my heart. There is nothing weird, magical, or esoteric about that. Dwelling worshipfully on the goodness of God keeps me in a supernatural state of mind.
Meditating on God’s Names
One Bible passage encourages us to meditate on the name of God (a composite name made up of all His many names and titles in Scripture). Here is that beautiful verse:
Then those who feared the LORD spoke to one another, and the LORD listened and heard them; so a book of remembrance was written before Him for those who fear the LORD and who meditate on His name.
Doing what this verse describes means prayerfully and worshipfully rehearsing His names in our heart of hearts, dwelling on them with faith-filled understanding and love-filled adoration. The hundreds of names and titles for God found in the Bible reveal His character and His promises toward us, such as:
Yahweh-Rapha (the Lord our healer)
Yahweh-Yireh (the Lord our provider)
Yahweh-Tsidkenu (the Lord our righteousness)
Yahweh-Raah (the Lord our shepherd)
Yahweh-Tsebaoth (the Lord of hosts)
El Shaddai (the Almighty God)
El Elyon (the Most High)
Jesus (meaning Salvation, which was effected through his death on the cross)
No wonder Proverbs 18:10 says, “The name of the Lord is a strong tower. The righteous run to it and are safe,” because by meditating on God’s wondrous names as found in the Bible, we discover the glory of what he will do for us and in us.
 https://www.wellandgood.com/visualization-meditation/ (accessed 3-17-21)
 Ray Yungen, A Time of Departing (Lighthouse Trails Publishing Company, Silverton Ohio, 2002) p. 75.
(All scripture is NKJV unless otherwise noted.)
Copyright © 2021 Mike Shreve